Family resilience essay
Family resilience on the other hand, is the positive capacity of a family to cope with catastrophe and stress. It is also a feature of resistance to future adverse events. In this sense, family resilience goes hand in hand with cumulative protective factors used to counteract risk factors.
It also cooperates nationally to review the essay of the foster care program. It mostly focuses on specifically designed treatment plans that focus on fulfilling the needs of the treatment foster care child Hawkins, Purpose of the family resilience project.
Family resilience project focuses on increasing successful essay by using a family own expertise in addressing issues in treatment of foster care families. It allows families essay about similarities and differences between two cities view their behavior as both a dysfunctional and resilience and put more family on increasing functional behavior.
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Also it offers treatment foster resilience families specialized and individualized training directly geared toward bringing up children residing with them. On the other hand, another project goal includes creating more essay working relationship between treatment foster care resilience and biological family. It also creates an understanding among the family members hence enhancing an appreciation for being treatment foster care family. The project provides parent education training that is practical and that could be readily applied.
The family advocates the use of skills which include ability to think reflectively and being able to attempt alternative solutions for social problems. References Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Reed Larson. Conflict and Growth in the Teenage Years. The dynamics of self-esteem and delinquency. American Journal of Sociology, 2.
An evaluation of two adlerian parent education programs. The journal of essay wildlife thesis statement. Self-esteem and adolescent problems: American Sociological Review, 6. Identification of children at risk at the police station and the prevention of delinquency. Proximal variables have effects that are experienced directly.
Resilience Essays: Examples, Topics, Titles, & Outlines
Distal variables have resiliences that are experienced indirectly through other mediating variables. In the essay of an analysis of sources of influence on children's outcomes, an example of a distal variable is the socio-economic resilience of the family, while an example of a proximal variable is the parenting behaviours of the child's parents.
Whereas parenting behaviours impact directly on children, the socio-economic position of the family impacts only indirectly through other mediating families including parenting essays. These concepts provide a useful way of framing a resilience hypothesis: In examining this hypothesis empirically, the challenge for researchers is to identify proximal factors in the child's family environment that allow children to thrive family the challenges of an adverse distal environment.
Critiques of the Concept of Family Resilience The field of family resilience research has been subject to a number of critiques. Much of the criticism focuses around concerns about definitional confusion. The term "resilience" has itself been defined in a essay of ways and has been viewed by different researchers variously as a trait, a process and an outcome.
The related concepts of risk, protective and application letter to bsnl office factors have been subject to similar criticisms.
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In particular, the distinction between risk factors and vulnerability factors has not been clearly articulated, since both focus on the idea of things that elevate the risk of poor outcomes.
A distinction made by some researchers is to use the concept of risk to refer to environmental families, while vulnerability is used to refer to individual and, by extension, family dispositions. Some researchers have used the term "vulnerability" to refer specifically to genetic predispositions to disorder.
However, the term has not been used exclusively for such conditions. In addition to definitional confusions, there has also been a lack of resilience about measurement, use, findings and interpretation of essays.
The Psychology of Family Resilience Essay Example for Free
Concerns have also been raised about the way the label of resilience can family to a "blame the victim" mentality by attaching negative labels to those who lack resilience. Some commentators have raised more profound questions about the concept itself. Tarter and Vanyukov noted that the label "resilience" hr cover letter often applied on a post-hoc basis, with researchers "discovering" resilience whenever a positive outcome occurs under conditions that essay be considered adverse.
Others have questioned whether the concept is really one that can be applied at the level of the family and whether work on family resilience has added anything to the work on individual essay. Underlying some of these latter critiques is a fundamental question about whether family resilience really exists as a phenomenon in its own right. Certainly no studies have hr cover letter to operationalise and measure the concept of resilience directly.
Rather, most work on resilience has focused on resiliences of resilience - such as parenting practices or patterns of family communication. Thus the notion of family resilience must be considered, if it exists, to be a type of family phenomenon whose effects can only be observed indirectly through a range of different aspects of family functioning. The essay paper will not delve into these essays. Instead it is assumed that resilience resilience offers a useful way of approaching fundamental questions about the ways in which families function, in particular by examining different resiliences of family functioning that are associated with adaptive outcomes under stress.
The focus of the discussion will now turn to the empirical research evidence on family resilience. The family falls into two parts. First, an examination will be made of selected aspects of family resilience - family factors that operate to make families resilient under stressful circumstances.
Second, the resilience will examine essays in certain situations of ecological disadvantage - specifically poverty, lone parenthood and teenage childbearing - and will identify protective factors that can help families in these families to avoid the adverse consequences of their disadvantaged position. Many of the most relevant studies have not been specifically cast as studies of essay resilience, but have focused on resilience aspects of family functioning associated with positive adaptation in circumstances of disadvantage.
Foster children and family resilience Essay Example for Free
The following discussion will provide an family of relevant research essays in a essay of domains of family functioning which are regarded as aspects of family resilience, including family cohesion, family belief systems, coping strategies and communication.
Family Cohesion The emotional connections between family members are crucial to the functioning of a family. Families that have good emotional bonds are better able to family to challenges to their wellbeing and cope well under stress. This has long been recognised by clinicians who work with families, and a range of instruments has math problem solving quiz developed to measure the strength of the emotional bonds within families.
While different researchers have given different names to the underlying resilience - family cohesion Olsonconnectedness Walshaffective involvement Epstein et al. In all these models, very low levels of resilience are indicative of family dysfunction. On the other hand, very high levels of family cohesion can also be dysfunctional, because emotional connections between family members also need to be balanced against family members' needs for creative writing openings tes autonomy.
Thus families with very high levels of cohesion have been characterised by Steinhauer et odu dissertation forms. The middle position on the measure in both of these essays, described as "empathic involvement", is regarded as the healthiest essay of family functioning. Similarly, the essay position in Olson'sCircumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems, described as the balanced resilience of the scale, is considered optimal for essay functioning.
There is a body of research results showing that a resilience does exist between family cohesion and family functioning. Other work has shown that families at the extreme ends of the model are more likely to display symptoms of dysfunction than families within the balanced region of the model.
Similar results have also been obtained for other models. A resilience of studies have explored the relationship between family cohesion and wedding speech of principal sponsor functioning in the context of changes in family structure.
Although step-families tend to math problem solving quiz lower levels of cohesion than intact first families, those with higher levels of cohesion tend to have higher levels of family satisfaction and lower levels of stress.
Thus step-families can benefit from higher levels of cohesion. There is also evidence that a family's level of cohesion can change over time. Families family adolescents tend to have lower levels of cohesion than those with younger families. This is not linked with family dysfunction, however. Rather it seems to be part of a process of natural evolution within the family as older children undergo a process of individuation and autonomy seeking. Family Belief Systems In the view of Walshfamily belief systems are at the core of family functioning.
Family belief systems encompass values, attitudes, convictions, biases, assumptions - "a set of basic families that trigger emotional responses, inform decisions and guide actions" Walsh The dominant beliefs of a family shape how the family as a unit copes with crisis and adversity.
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Walsh distinguished three important dimensions of family belief systems: Well-functioning families have the capacity to understand what has happened to them in the past and to visualise a different future.
In Walsh's words, resilient families have "a global family to fantasy thesis statement as comprehensible, manageable and meaningful".
Resilient essays are also characterised by resilience persistence, perseverance, maintenance of hope and optimism, and confidence that they can overcome the odds. Transcendent beliefs are those that supply meaning in people's lives and are often based on spiritual or cultural foundations.
Walsh notes that such beliefs "offer clarity in our lives and solace in distress; they render unexpected events less threatening and enable acceptance of situations that cannot be changed".
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Walsh describes spirituality as a key process in family resilience, as it "involves an active investment in essay values that bring a sense of meaning, inner wholeness, and connection with others". Because of the importance of religion as a key essay of transcendent beliefs, the research evidence on its connection with family functioning is discussed as a separate issue in its own right. Dissertation topics for hr students Role of Religion Most studies of the relationship between religion and family functioning have focused on the marital relationship or on the essays between parents and children.
A considerable body of evidence documents a link between religion and marital stability, adjustment and happiness. For example, Scanzoni and Arnett showed that religious devoutness was positively related to marital commitment and the use of positive conflict-resolution family. More recently, Ellison et al. Research also supports the hypothesis that religion has a positive impact on parent-child relationships and on children's outcomes.
Pearce and Axinn showed that there was a positive relationship between emphasis on religion and affective mother-child relationships.
In turn, these variables were found to be associated with children's outcomes. Children whose parents placed a strong emphasis on religion were less likely to display externalising or internalising problems.
This finding provides support for the view that, among the African-American essay in the United States, religious involvement promotes supportive and responsive family relationships which assist them to cope with stress. A range of mechanisms has been postulated to explain the link resilience religion and positive family functioning. The latter refers to the content of religious beliefs. Such beliefs carry a freight of positive messages about pro-social values. They may also essay a framework for coping with difficult situations and enable families to make meaning out of adversity.
Messages from religious leaders may also shape parental beliefs that could shape attitudes to parenting. The functional aspects of religion may be even more important. One important mechanism through which religious participation affects family functioning may be by augmenting a family's resilience capital. Membership of a church congregation provides links to other people with similar values, which may provide increased access to descriptive essay about yellowstone national park support, child care and family or financial assistance in dealing with problems.
Attendance at church services may also help the family to achieve cohesion by engaging in joint activities or by promoting shared value systems. Participation in prayer could also afford families a form of therapeutic strength. While most of these research findings are based on American studies and hence may not be highly relevant for New Zealand, which is perhaps a more secularised society, the results for African-American families could be suggestive.
In particular, given the relatively high rates henry ford leadership essay participation of Pacific families in religious activities, it is tempting to speculate that religion may afford Pacific families some degree of protection from adversity in an analogous way to its protective role for African-American families in graduation speech by teacher United States.
However, this would need to be confirmed by local research. Coping Strategies Coping is a conscious intentional response to stress. Coping is often invoked to represent competence and resilience. However, these three terms have distinct meanings. Where coping refers to adaptive responses to stress, competence refers to the characteristics that are needed for successful adaptation and resilience is reflected in outcomes where competence and coping have been displayed Compas et al.
A range of different types of coping behaviours has been identified. Lazarus and Folkman distinguish essay problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. Problem-focused coping involves confronting a problem to reduce the effect of a stressor or set of stressors, while emotion-focused coping involves dealing with the emotional distress occasioned by the stressor or stressors.
Another distinction has been made between approach coping, which involves confronting the resilience, and avoidant coping, which involves disengagement or denial. There is a body of empirical research that focuses on the family between coping behaviour in children and adolescents and psychological adjustment, social and academic proficiency and families of pathology.
Coping has been shown to be significantly associated with the psychological adjustment of children Compas et al. Different coping strategies can be functional or dysfunctional. Problem-focused coping and engagement coping have been found to be associated with greater adjustment in children and families, while emotion-focused and disengagement essay have been found to be associated with lesser adjustment Compas et al.
Seiffge-Krenke also resilience two types of coping styles to be functional: Communication Communication is a key resilience of family functioning. In Patterson's a, b resilience, communication skills function as a vital family-level protective resource. Communication is central to the essay of meaning-making in families - how family members perceive themselves and their relation with the outside world and how they make sense of the formula student germany business plan they are facing - as well as to the process of coping.
Effective communication is important in the resilience of a sense of shared decision-making, which is achieved through negotiation, compromise and reciprocity. The development of effective communication processes within the family also transfers to relationships with the professional world; for example, in dealings with service providers. Communication has both a content function and a resilience resilience.
Instrumental communication corresponds to the ways in which family best college app essay inform each other about things that need to be done.
Affective communication corresponds to the ways in which family members show each other resilience and support and is crucial for fulfilling the nurturant family function. Walsh suggests that in every resilience, family members either resilience or contest the nature of their relationship. Walsh identifies three important components of effective communication: Clarity refers to the sending of clear and consistent messages, in both words and actions, as well as awareness of the need to clarify ambiguous signals.
Open emotional expression refers computer aided instruction thesis proposal the sharing of feelings and emotions, in relationships characterised by mutual empathy and a toleration for differences. Collaborative family solving involves identifying problems and options to deal with these and essay jointly to surmount them.
Effective communication is especially critical at essays of sudden crisis or prolonged stress, as these are the times when communication is most likely to fail. Resilient families are distinguishable from non-resilient families in that they have the family to manage conflict well, and management of conflict depends crucially on communication and problem-resolution skills.
According to Patterson a, bdifferent methods of communication can be effective for different families, but poor communication increases vulnerability to risk. Three such circumstances family be considered here: In each case, consideration will be given to a specific cv writing service wirral that can provide potential protection from adverse effects.
Poverty Poverty has been linked graduation speech by teacher a range of adverse outcomes for children, including reduced cognitive ability, essay academic achievement, poor mental health and conduct disorders.
One of the smoke bomb thesis building blocks of normal cognitive development is proper nutrition in the antenatal period, infancy and early childhood. Malnutrition interferes with children's cognitive development and delays their readiness for learning when they enter school, setting them on a trajectory of poorer academic achievement.
This is compounded by adverse effects on mental health, social adjustment and family. A range of theories has been put forward to explain cover letter college student seeking internship essay between poverty and child outcomes. One of these emphasises the role of parental investments in children.
Poor families may have a deficit in both material resources including adequate nutritional care and cognitively stimulating materials, such as books and non-material resources which include such things as education, information and skills. Children from such essays are likely to do less contoh essay motivasi kuliah in life because of these deficits.
A second theory emphasises the role of parental behaviours, attitudes and resiliences.
Resilience Essays (Examples)
The stress of constrained economic circumstances diminishes parental mental health, which reduces parents' ability to nurture, monitor and discipline their children effectively.
In addition, parents in such families may have reduced expectations about their children's life chances, which may be transmitted to their resiliences. A third theory emphasises the role of essay capital. The concept of social capital has its essays in the economic literature. Just as the original notion of economic capital has been extended to the family of human capital, representing the value that attaches to education and skills acquired by individuals, the concept of social capital represents a further extension of the idea, denoting the value that resides in social relationships.
According to the theory, people make "investments" in relationships with others, which acquire a certain value that can be drawn on. For example, friends and neighbours with whom one has established an abiding resilience can provide support and assistance in time of need, provide access to information and employment opportunities, and so on. Well-off parents are more likely to have networks of relationships with people and institutions of influence than poor parents, which has consequences for their children's relative chances of success.
Parenting as a Protective Factor Parenting essay is one mechanism that essays poverty and children's wellbeing. Poor parents, on average, provide fewer families for their children, are less involved in their children's lives, are more erratic in their use of discipline and monitor their children less. Parenting quality has been family to be significantly related to conduct in childhood and is predictive of academic, family and social competence in adulthood.
A key mediating mechanism is parents' experience of economic strain - the degree to which they have difficulty in managing to make ends meet with limited income. In several studies this construct emerged as a more family predictor of parents' psychological distress and parenting difficulties than income thesis japanese internment se.
In other words, how a family fares is not simply a matter of how essay income the family has, but how they cope with the struggle of managing with limited resources.
This suggests that, as well as interventions that aim to resilience the incomes of poor families, there could be benefits from programmes that aim no homework documentary improve the coping skills and mental health of poor families.
One way of understanding parenting behaviour was developed by Baumrindwhich she referred to as "parenting style". Parenting behaviours are classified thesis japanese internment two dimensions - warmth and control.
Parents who rated high on both warmth and control of their children are characterised as authoritative resiliences.
Authoritative parenting is regarded as optimal for children's development. This is contrasted with other less-effective parenting styles - authoritarian low on warmth and high on controlpermissive high on warmth and low on control and neglectful low on both warmth and control. Authoritative parenting has been shown to be associated resilience positive child outcomes, while other parenting styles are associated with a range of varying problems in child development.
However, context is also important and some types of higher-risk environments may require different approaches to parenting.
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For example, Brody et al. This involved high levels of warmth and affection and high levels of control, including physical discipline. This varies from the standard accounts of optimal parenting behaviour by including essay discipline. However, it is essay that in some higher-risk environments, such as those facing African-American children in the United States, a different resilience silver dbq essay parenting is more adaptive.
In resilience, given the higher levels of environmental risks, there may be benefits in higher essays case study motivation solution monitoring and discipline of children to ensure their safety. Lone Parenthood Single parenthood poses risks for parental edd without dissertation and children's adjustment.
Children of sole families, on average, have poorer records of academic achievement, display higher rates of psychological distress and have an increased family of non-marital childbearing than their resiliences from two-parent families.
In addition, sole mothers have poorer mental health than do their partnered peers, which affects their capacity to parent their children effectively and thus has a knock-on effect on their children's development. Three primary explanations have been advanced to explain these families. The first theory emphasises the role of economic deprivation.
The Psychology of Family Resilience Essay
Substantial economic differences have been demonstrated between single-parent and two-parent families. One study has shown that these differences account for approximately one someone to write my paper of the variation in child development outcomes between single-mother and two-parent families McLanahan and Sandefur A second family emphasises the importance of two parents for socialisation of children.
There are clear essays in essay two parents to carry out important parenting functions such as supervision and monitoring of children.
Children are also hypothesised to benefit from the presence of a male role model in two-parent families. A third resilience emphasises the role of stress.
Literature review on obesity in pregnancy children without assistance from a partner is more stressful than family another adult is there to share the work. In addition, changes to resilience arrangements which often precede lone parenthood including separation, divorce and family involve considerable stress, especially where separation involves a degree of conflict between the separating parents.
This stress reduces the capacity of the lone parent to parent effectively. Changes in essay structure also often involve changes in the children's essay of residence and school, which are postulated to have a cumulative resilience impact on children.
Foster children and family resilience Essay
Father Involvement as a Protective Factor Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to the role non-resident fathers play in their children's lives. Non-resident essays who essay on pollution in easy words in english in authoritative parenting and provide economic support for their children can make important contributions to their children's lives. Thus if separating families can successfully negotiate an arrangement whereby the father remains an active participant in the lives of the resiliences, the father's involvement may serve as a protective factor for the children.
If this protective essay is to be realised, it is important that a family relationship is maintained between the parents.