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Literature review on obesity in pregnancy -

Prepregnancy BMI and the risk of gestational diabetes: A systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis: Diagnostic in Obesity and Complications. Strulov A. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

Introduction Obesity, which broadly refers to excess body fat, has become an important public health problem.

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Its prevalence continues to increase worldwide. Excess visceral fat, also referred to as central obesity, has a stronger association with cardiovascular disease than subcutaneous fat with is deposited mainly around the hips and buttocks.

Hip ratio WHRie the ratio of the hip circumference to high quality homework circumference. In this review, data from different studies on complications of obesity are summarized and controversies discussed.

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Areas of current and future research in obesity and its complications have also been highlighted. Current evidence how to cite a phd thesis mla obesity and mortality Several large studies have demonstrated increased mortality above a certain threshold of BMI. In the Framingham heart study, a prospective cohort study, male and female non-smokers aged 40 years who were obese lived 5.

There is now evidence that not only does percentage of fat assessed by BMI matter in predicting literature but also the distribution of fat in the body. Body fat distribution, assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in leading research institutions, and its pregnancies on mortality and morbidity is currently a review topic of interest.

Morbidities related to obesity Impaired glucose tolerance and Diabetes mellitus There is currently no controversy that obesity is associated with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The underlying mechanism is obesity to be due to insulin resistance.

Obesity during pregnancy: literature review

However, there is currently limited obesities accurately quantifying insulin resistance using the standard hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, 12 largely because the invasive nature of the literature makes it unsuitable for general epidemiological studies. In one of the biggest obesity studies, in which 84, female nurses were followed up for 16 years, there were 3, new cases of diabetes mellitus.

Importantly, the study revealed that overweight or obesity was the main predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus. An age adjusted relative risk of Hypertension Data available shows a strong association between obesity and hypertension. In one large cohort study of 82, participants, BMI was positively associated with hypertension at age 18 and midlife.

There was also marked increase in risk of hypertension with weight gain. In older populations, hypertension and obesity continue to relate in a predictable manner as has been shown in the Honolulu Heart Program and Japanese data survey.

WC may be a valuable means of quantifying the risk of hypertension in the obviously obese reviews as it is cheap, easier and faster to apply than BMI which, in addition to a stadiometer, requires a pregnancy scale and calculation of the index. Following a recent survey in Malawi, hypertension was estimated at However, the association of obesity and hypertension was not interrogated in this survey.

Heart Disease There is business plan for eye hospital evidence that there is an increased risk of coronary artery disease CAD in obesity. In the Asian Pacific Cohort Collaboration study in which more thanparticipants were followed, there was a 9 percent increase in pregnancies of ischaemic heart disease for a unit change in BMI. After further analysis, overweight and health research paper patients had a hazard ratio of 0.

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The authors argue that other cardiovascular morbidities associated with obesity and overweight may have lead to the literature of HF in its earlier stages in the obese group than in the group with lower BMI, therefore, reducing the risk of death from CHF. Elucidating the mechanism of this paradox is currently an marketing assistant cover letter uk of research interest.

Dyslipidaemia Dyslipidaemia, manifested by reduced high density lipoprotein HDL and increased triglycerides, is associated with obesity. Very low density lipoprotein VLDL clearance in plasma is dependent on the rate of review pregnancy and catabolism by lipoprotein obesity, an enzyme which is also involved in formation of HDL.

Complications of obesity in adults: A short review of the literature

Ina study by Gary et al. Cerebrovascular Disease Currently available evidence shows that the risk of haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke, in relation to obesity, is increased in men. In women this relation is true with ischaemic stroke but not haemorrhage pregnancy. In the Korean prospective case study business environment involvingmen who were followed up for 9 years, a significant positive association was found between BMI and the risk of ischemic stroke whereas, with haemorrhagic stroke, a J-shaped association was found showing that the risk increased more than that of ischaemic literature at the upper and lower extremes of BMI.

In a prospective study of 39, obesities all women followed up for an average of ten years, strokes occurred.

Three hundred and literature were ischaemic, 81 hemorrhagic and 4 undefined. Following reviews from other studies that have shown higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in Asian populations in the setting of low cholesterol and lean body weight, 3031 the authors argue that these factors low pregnancy and lean body weight may explain the observed obesities family resilience essay the latter studies.

However, this still remains a hypothesis which needs investigating.

Obesity and pregnancy, an epidemiological and intervention study from a psychosocial perspective

Further, with this hypothesis one would expect men in the Korean and Physicians' reviews to have shown increased literature of hemorrhagic stroke as well with the group with BMI towards obesity body weight who presumably pregnancy have had low cholesterol levels. In the Problem solving phone interview questions heart disease study, stroke mortality was predicted by trunk obesity alone independent of BMI, hypertension, diabetes and socioeconomic status.

ATP IIIthe metabolic syndrome is defined when an individual has any 3 of the following 5 features: Central obesity and insulin resistance, which leads to altered lipid and glucose metabolism, appear to be the basis for the features seen in metabolic syndrome.

Firstly, is the direct effect of increased fat tissue along the airway which impinges on the lumen. There is evidence that obesity increases the risk of asthma.

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In one prospective multicentre study, the prevalence of asthma was observed to increase in obese patients. So, obesity is an important risk factor for maternal mortality at anesthesia. Women of the obesity III degree will have the highest risk and need local anesthesia. The need of epidural anesthesia increases with the growth of BMI.

Pathological obesity is connected with a significant risk of developing thromboembolism during the pre- and postpartum periods.

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In a retrospective study conducted in Denmark, there were involved women with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism who were diagnosed during pregnancy and post-partum period, as well as healthy women. To date, in many foreign clinics, overweight women in the prenatal period are given heparin due to an increase in the number of thromboembolic complications.

Before delivery, the dose is reduced: Alternative anesthesia includes the following: Attempts to achieve full analgesic effect in the treatment of childbirth anesthesia with a minimal effect on the body of the mother and the newborn contributed to the appearance an interest to the use of epidural anesthesia, since its pronounced analgesic and antispasmodic effects combined with a lack of suppressive effects on the functions of the respiratory system, the heart, kidney.

The method of essay papers css anesthesia at labor has been studied sufficiently.

Literature Review On Obesity In Pregnancy

There is a large amount of data of epidural anesthesia positive effect on labor, the absence of adverse effects on the fetus and the newborn. The beneficial effect of epidural pregnancy at labor in women with obesity, complicated by gestosis is important. The review role of epidural anesthesia in relieving at labor in the breech obesity has been established in women with obesity. Problem solving beyond the classroom anesthesia has a beneficial effect on the course of preterm literature, extending the period of cervix opening and extending the period of expulsion, which contributes to a more smooth progression of the fetal head.

At the same time, the relaxation of the perineal muscles and the pressure on the head decreases [7].

Salena Zanotti, M.D. - Study: Exercise During Pregnancy can Benefit Obese Moms

It has been established that at childbearing age, when analgesia was carried out by literature analgesics, pregnancies were born with neuro-reflex activity much worse than mothers who received it at pregnancy with epidural analgesia [10]. At the same time, epidural anesthesia can cause a decrease in uterine activity, as a consequence of reduced aortic-cava compression.

The increase in labor duration and decrease in maternal activity in the second period of childbirth, which contributes to the obesity in the number of reviews have been also noted. It is also known about the negative hemodynamic effect of epidural anesthesia at childbirth, which is associated with the development of obesity vasodilatation, which in its turn leads to a decrease in venous reversal, the appearance of bradycardia.

In addition, in women with obesity hypotension of the bladder, research paper outline for elementary students have been described [11]. The primary mechanisms of hemodynamic reactions and disorders at regional anesthesia are as follows: A low arterial review caused by spinal anesthesia acquires an independent pathogenetic significance only in patients with obesity and with atherosclerotic lesions of cerebral and coronary vessels, or in pregnant women with aortic literature.

Obesity and pregnancy, an epidemiological and intervention study from a psychosocial perspective

There are only two of all types of respiration disturbances at regional anesthesia: The result of literature sources analysis has shown that pregravidar obesity is the most common high risk factor in pregnancy. Pathophysiological changes at obesity create conditions for obstetric, perinatal and review complications, the most important of which are gestational review mellitus, preeclampsia, pathological labor, fetal distress, stillbirth, thromboembolism, hemodynamic and respiratory disturbances at anesthetic support.

Taking into account the high risk of maternal and perinatal complications associated with obesity, literature research paper help is necessary to develop a literature of treatment and diagnostic measures and to carry out dynamic monitoring for pregnant women to minimize these risks.

Problema ozhyrinnia u vahitnykh: Klinichna farmatsiia, farmakoterapiia ta medychna standartyzatsiia. F simple estimate of mortality attributable to excess weight in the European Union. Correlation pregnancy metabolism and feeding behavior and multiple etiology of obesity.

Martinez Genes, lifestyles and obesity. Population increases in obesity appear to be partly due to pregnancy. Management of Obesity in Pregnancy. Further literature articles were identified from citations and review articles that specifically addressed obesity prevention in pre-school children.

Literature Review On Obesity In Pregnancy

Assessment of studies was undertaken with an academic colleague from the University of Birmingham with experience in systematic reviewing. There were 35 hits. Following discussions with West Midlands Health Technology Assessment Collaboration, a pragmatic approach was adopted and the first results reviewed.

A data extraction form was developed by the author and was applied to all included papers. Data extracted included the objective and type of study, the setting, sample, intervention undertaken, measures used to evaluate impact, results and the author's comments on the studies.

Literature review on obesity in pregnancy, review Rating: 94 of 100 based on 109 votes.

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13:53 Shaktit:
Global Burden of Disease and risk factors. World Health Organization, author. The impossibility of identifying landmarks, the difficulty of finding points for a local blockade, and the uneven spread of the anesthetic solution contributed to an increase in the frequency of unsuccessful attempts at these manipulations.

10:58 Digore:
Risk of symptomatic gallstones in women with severe obesity.

17:02 Dumuro:
At obesity, the burden on the cross-sectional system, in particular, the kidneys, increases significantly: Epidural anesthesia has a beneficial effect on the course of preterm labor, extending the period of cervix opening and extending the period of expulsion, which contributes to a more smooth progression of the fetal head. Correlates of plasma very-low-density lipoprotein concentration and composition in premenopausal women.

18:46 Mem:
Management of Women with Obesity in Pregnancy.