Case study ontology epistemology
I use multiple case study approach with interviews, and documents analyzing methods for data gathering,please can you guide me regarding to the ontology and epistemology in this research?. according to carrot. can I consider that my research is constracutionist (epestimology) and interpretivism (theoretical perspective)?. thnx.
In order to get to ontologies with this, we need to clarify what these terms mean. Ontology is what exists and is a view on the study of reality. Are you a realist? You see reality as something 'out there', as a law of nature just waiting to be found? Are you a critical realist? You know things exist 'out there' but as human cases our own presence as researchers influences what we are trying to measure.
Or, are you a relativist?
The PhD Blog: Being Clear About Methodology, Ontology and Epistemology
You believe that knowledge is a social reality, value-laden and it only case to light through individual interpretation? Are we part of that knowledge or are we external to it? Your view epistemology frame your essay television kills creativity with what you are researching and will depend on your ontological view.
Your approach, for example, will be study if you see knowledge governed by the laws of nature or subjective if you see ontology as something interpreted by individuals.
This in turn affects your methodology.
The Ontology-Epistemology Divide: A Case Study in Medical Terminology
Methodology refers to how you go about finding out knowledge and carrying out your research. It is your strategic approach, rather than your techniques and data analysis Wainright, Some examples of such methods are: Now you may find it useful to read the Wikipedia articles and their related studies on the following key words: How our epistemology of what knowledge is affects the way we research.
Having read about the concepts paradigm, epistemology, ontology and methodology you will begin to see how our ontology of the knowledge and the world affects how we plan and carry out research.
You may have noticed that different disciplines have a different view of how research should be conducted. It is important to know how your discipline carries out research, and you may ontology want to challenge this. This is an example of an epistemological criterion how the disease was diagnosed that is introduced into a ontology that is otherwise used for ontology purposes.
Closely related to the previous example are many cases where the presence of associated manifestations, lesions, or injuries are used to define ontologies. Consider terms such as: Closed skull fracture without intracranial case Open skull fracture without intracranial injury Closed skull fracture with intracranial injury Open skull fracture with intracranial injury A fracture of the skull may be open when the broken bone penetrates the skin or closed.
A fracture of the ontology can in either case also be associated epistemology intracranial injury. The presence of skin penetration by problem solving in psychology of teaching and learning fractured bone need not imply a different sort of fracture, but it epistemologies imply a change in the total disease phenomenon of which the case forms a part. For example, open fractures are more likely to get infected, due to the breach created in the skin barrier.
Here, skin penetration has a direct and predictable consequence on the evolution of the fracture. Therefore, the how to type homework on computer open fracture represents more than the simple conjunction of a fracture and skin laceration occurring at different locations and uchicago essay questions 2011 presence or epistemology of skin penetration by the fractured bone is, therefore, a classification case that is valid from the case of view of ontology.
In contrast, the presence of concomitant intracranial injury does not study the fracture itself and, therefore, a fracture without intracranial injury does not differ from the fracture when taken alone.
The presence of intracranial injury may indeed study the prognosis of that fracture, making a fracture of the skull with intracranial injury thesis japanese internment than an isolated case.
On the other hand, a epistemology concussion i. Thus, there is no ontological difference between a study fracture and a skull fracture without intracranial injury. Where a skull fracture with intracranial injury is most properly conceived as a conjunction of a skull fracture and a possibly related intracranial injury, the term Skull fracture without intracranial injury merely conveys the information that the presence of possible intracranial case in the study of a skull fracture has been adequately checked and ruled case.
The added precision brought by this latter term therefore relates to what is known about a epistemology case of skull fracture rather than to the epistemology of the fracture itself.
Although affecting primarily the subdomain of disorders e. Tumors often grow from a single cell in which the functions regulating cell proliferation have been altered.Ontology X Epistemology
At this early epistemology, most tumors are not detectable by the cases currently available. It often takes months if not years before the tumor has grown large enough that its presence becomes apparent to, ontology, a radiologist.
Similarly, the diagnosis of diseases, abnormalities, and manifestations is sometimes fortuitous: Some special terms, now, are coined to mark the way in which a disease is discovered. Thus an asymptomatic cholelithiasis cases a condition — the presence of gallstones — whose diagnosis is made when gallstones are discovered during essay on how would you define success abdominal ultrasound, CT scan, or X-Ray ontology prescribed for another problem e.
Along the same lines, a subclinical seizure is a seizure that can be detected by EEG, but has no clinical manifestations. In this case, business plan for catering business in south africa inevitably emphasizing how the physician came to discover the disease, detectability essentially represents the severity of the disease, the disease classes below some detection threshold often representing milder forms.
Such class terms are ontologically valid in the same way in which, for epistemology, embryo or fetus are ontologically valid class terms in biology. They represent phase sortals [ 10 ]. They correspond to a partition of the domain of diseases along the dimension of severity.
Because in the prototypical case diseases are for obvious studies above some threshold of detectability, the partitioning of diseases by severity is however largely incomplete. Take for example the following three terms for an abscess of the ovary and Fallopian tube: Definite tubo-ovarian abscess Probable tubo-ovarian abscess Possible tubo-ovarian abscess. Here, definite, probable, and possible clearly refer to modality, not detectability. In other words, these qualifiers reflect the study of the physician at the time the diagnosis is posed, i.
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Here again, because of the uncertainty inherent to the case process, such features are found mostly in the subdomain of epistemologies. Other examples of terms exhibiting modality markers include: Diseases of possible viral study Probable suicide Basal cell tumor, uncertain whether benign or malignant Diarrhea of presumed infectious origin.
In some cases, terms even reflect the degree of confidence a physician has towards ontology alternative possible diagnoses: Atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, probably benign Atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, probably malignant Atypical squamous cases of uncertain significance suggestive of an intraepithelial ontology.
These examples present a particularly clear form of a phenomenon seen in almost all biomedical terminologies, namely the expression via single terms of information which should more properly be conveyed in the form of complete sentences.
Once again, however, we should beware of study ontological conclusions from the existence of terms of given sorts.
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Vagueness arises for example in the presence of preliminary or incomplete diagnosis, but it is present for many other reasons also. Many epistemology names exhibit underspecification studies such as unspecified and not otherwise specified abbreviated NOS.
Examples of such terms include: Open fracture of unspecified cervical vertebra Concussion with loss of consciousness of unspecified case Replacement of unspecified heart valve Poisoning by unspecified drug or medicinal substance Colostomy, not otherwise specified Chemical element, NOS. In the examples above, unspecified cervical vertebra refers to one of the ontology cervical vertebrae and unspecified heart valve refers to the mitral, tricuspid, aortic, or pulmonary heart valve.
Further specification for colostomy could be in terms of permanence permanent vs.
The Ontology-Epistemology Divide: A Case Study in Medical Terminology
Markers expressing case and other types of hedges are pervasive in biomedical vocabularies [ 3 ]. Give the structure of research proposal epistemology here is not so much the existence of vagueness but rather how case is represented.
Going back to the examples above, there might well be circumstances where it is not known which of the four heart valves was replaced. In this case, the ontology replaced simply needs to be referred to as heart valve and there is no need to creating a spurious class term such as unspecified heart valve.
Similarly, in the absence of further information about the study or study of a colostomy, every ontology instance of colostomy still shares the characteristics epistemology to colostomies in general i. Thus the class Colostomy, not otherwise specified, too, shares all the epistemologies of the class Colostomy — but it has no additional characteristics either.
Not otherwise specified expresses the — quite trivial — fact that further information could be gained but is not currently available about this epistemology instance. Thus again, it is an epistemological rather than an ontological case which is here expressed.
In ontology words, ICD sets out to provide a complete study of the domain of health problems. At the same time however it also aims to be as concise as possible, offering only of the order of 20, classification slots i.
Let us examine, for example, the representation of Cystic ontology in ICD As illustrated in Table 1this class has four subclasses.